DVD On-Demand or DVD/CD Replication?

Your project is finished and you’re ready to get it out there, what’s the most cost effective way of reproducing your DVD or CD? Duplication is not a “one size fits all” type of thing, there are options.

There are basically two ways to pay for production of your title: up-front, or as orders come in. All else being equal, there are obvious advantages to minimizing your initial expenses. However, there are also reasons why for some projects it makes more sense to spend more up front on a large production run.

Replication is the “traditional” way to manufacture DVDs and CDs for sale. It uses a process of stamping a large number of discs out of molten plastic on a high-capacity press. This is the technique Hollywood uses to produce DVDs in vast quantities, and produces the most compatible end product. This allows the production of discs which are relatively inexpensive each, but it also requires a minimum run of about 1000 pieces. Similarly, the packaging is printed on high-speed presses, thousands of sheets at a time. As a result, you typically spend a couple thousand dollars up-front to go this route.

On-Demand production or CD duplication is a very different approach from replication. In this approach, discs and packaging are made one at a time as orders come in. As a result, your up-front costs are only $50, a tiny fraction of what they’d be with high-volume replication. On the other hand, per-unit prices are higher than they would be with replication, so profitability is lower at higher volumes. Also, a small number of older DVD players may have trouble playing the DVD-R media used in on-demand duplication.

Replication with On-Demand Packaging uses a combination of the techniques above. The discs are replicated in volume. However, instead of printing and packaging everything in boxes immediately, the discs are stored on bulk spindles. Printing and packaging is then handled as orders roll in. This reduces up-front costs considerably, minimizes storage costs, and still yields the high compatibility of replicated discs. Per-unit profit falls between the two options above.


Special Patent Searches

There are several different types of patent searches and opinions that may be created. First, the “search” phase may have different purposes, and second, the “opinion” phase may be directed to different needs.

Patentability Search – For the patentability search and opinion, the purpose is to determine if an invention is disclosed in other references, such as patents or other publications. That is, do other patents or publications teach how to make the invention, either within a single patent or publication, or through a combination of patents and publications that are in the same general technical field (called a “field of art” in the patent vernacular).

The reasons for performing a patentability search are that the United States Patent & Trademark office (USPTO) will reject a patent application for lack of novelty if it is completely taught within a single reference patent or publication, or if they deem the invention to be obvious, through a combination of other patents and/or publications.

Because the claims in a patent or published patent application must be supported by a description in the specification portion of the patent and in the drawings, a patentability search and opinion focuses on the text and drawings to determine whether the subject invention has been taught before. If the entire invention is found disclosed within a single patent, the opinion will reflect that the subject invention lacks novelty as you can read from

If all the features of the subject invention are not found in a single patent, but can be found in two or more patents or other publications in the same field of art, the opinion will reflect that the subject invention lacks non-obviousness. If a single feature of the invention cannot be found within the references located during the search, the opinion will reflect that the invention should be patentable. While experienced searchers will generally find nearly all of the references that might be applicable towards a particular invention, it is always possible that a reference may be overlooked.

Additionally, an examiner at the USPTO may believe that a reference discloses something different than the view of the person who wrote the opinion. Further, an examiner at the USPTO is at liberty to select any reference, that is, any published material that may exist. Thus the examiner may draw upon publications that are not patents or patent applications.

Additionally, during the patent examination process, patent applications are secret for a period of time (typically 18 months), during which no one outside the USPTO can access them to determine whether they might impact the patentability of a particular invention. Lastly, an examiner may draw upon foreign references. While an exhaustive search of foreign patents, patent applications and other non-patent published material may be made, such would come at a typically prohibitive cost and it is all explained in details on

Accordingly, during the search portion for a patentability opinion for filing of an application for a United States patent, only a search of U.S. patents and patent applications that are published will be made. Further, such patentability search may be limited to a particular time frame, typically since 1976, because U.S. patents prior to 1976 are only stored as image files at the USPTO and may not be keywords searchable.

Patents prior to 1976 are typically searched by the classification number in which the fall along with the title of the invention, which can be searched by keyword. It should be noted that the USPTO me soon require foreign searches to be made as part of a special process to accelerate the examination of a patent application. However, the scope of such foreign search has not yet been defined and may add substantially to the costs of obtaining a search for this purpose.


How to License Your Invention

The adage that if you “build a better mousetrap, the world will beat a path to your door” has long been discredited. The reality is that it takes money and proactive effort to manufacture, market and distribute a new product, even if it is the proverbial better mousetrap.

Given the effort required, many inventors either don’t have the resources or are just not interested in taking their invention to market. They’re inventors, after all, not business tycoons. How then does an inventor profit from his or her patents? One way is through licensing.

Difference Between Licensing and Assignment

A license is a contract between the patent owner and another party in which the patent owner promises not to sue the other party for using the invention as long as the other party uses the invention according to the terms of the contract as you can read from The patent owner still owns the patent and is merely extending certain limited rights to the other party, usually in exchange for fees or royalties of one form or another.

An assignment, on the other hand, is a transfer of ownership interest in the patent. If an inventor assigns a patent to another party, the inventor has no further rights in the patent. A patent can be assigned in whole or in part, and it can be assigned conditionally or unconditionally. When assigned, the assignee becomes the new patent owner and you can read more about it from

Who Will License Your Invention?

Because an invention must be useful to be patented, it shouldn’t be difficult to identify who would find it useful.

For example, if your invention is a consumer product, then a manufacturer of similar consumer products may want your new product to add to their catalog and boost their sales.

If you’ve perfected some industrial product or process, then companies in that industry may want to take advantage of what you’ve created to lower their costs or gain a competitive advantage.

It may take research, but if you can uncover 40 to 50 companies who can financially benefit from your invention, you have a good chance of finding at least one who is interested in licensing it from you.


Choosing Power Tools

They say that renovation never stops once you get started. Of course, this is a joke, which however, hints on challenges every homeowner is destined to face on this way. Even if you are the best DIY expert in your neighborhood you will face the same problems, especially with choosing power tools.

On the one hand, one may think that purchasing and using power tolls is a breeze. Yes, there are lots of tools and gear for homeowners these days. You can buy them online and offline. There are plenty of brands, from recognized market leaders such as Black and Decker to unknown Asian companies that seem to offer decent products at low prices. Often, homeowners, especially inexperienced ones, face huge problems with choosing necessary gear. Down the page are typical mistakes in buying power instruments.

Expensive means quality. Yes, this is a true statement. Expensive tools are reliable. However, often, you have to overpay just because you are about to purchase an instrument by a famous manufacturer. Look around you! There are dozens of cheaper brands that offer same quality products. So, why overpay? This is not to say that you have to choose the least expensive products. However, be reasonable and reap benefits online shopping offers you. Even the famous brands have different tools with different prices. For example Black and Decker rtx rotary tool – compare prices and specs, and then make your decision.

I need tools for professionals. Many homeowners make a mistake of buying stuff for professional contractors, i.e. people who intensively use instruments every day. If you need a cordless drill once a month, you do not need a $1,000 kit meant for contractors who drill stone and iron. Yes, such instruments are reliable. However, it will look like buying a giant truck just to drive your kids to school. Why overpay for features and performance characteristics you will never need? Be smart! It is your money after all! For example, you may opt for a simple lawn mower if you use it once a month. Sure, if you want to earn money by mowing lawns of your neighbors you should invest in a more expensive tool.

Sales people will recommend the best value for my money. Yes, some sales representatives are experts in home renovation. However, do not forget how these people make money. They earn their living by selling expensive stuff. That is why it is important to be able to make an unbiased decision based solely on your real needs and budget limits.